Navāʾi, Tehran, 1990, and Qāżi Aḥmad Ḡaffāri Qazvini, Tāriḵ-e jahānārā, ed. As Hans Roemer (1986, p. 249) observed, there was no need to see a policy of “Persianization” in this move, but undoubtedly “the idea of a Turkmen state with its center at Tabriz and its fulcrum in eastern Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and northwestern Persia was abandoned.” The decision to replace Tabriz as the imperial center, a city that had historically been the hub of a number of Mongol and Turkmen dynasties such as the Il-khanids, the Qara Qoyunlus, and the Āq Qoyunlus, was concurrent with a decision by the shah to populate and staff his court and army with members of a new, non-Qezelbāš constituency. Although the date of the official transfer is still debated among historians, it is almost certain that Ṭahmāsp began preparations to have the royal capital moved from Tabriz to Qazvin during this period of ethnic re-settlement in the 1540s. [5] This peace lasted for 30 years, until it was broken in the time of Shah Mohammed Khodabanda. Detecting the machinations of his wakil, Ḥosayn Khan Šāmlu, behind his brother’s treachery, Ṭahmāsp had the Šāmlu amir executed. Suleiman's favourite wife, Hürrem Sultan, was eager for her son, Selim, to become the next sultan. 387-405; and Rasul Jaʿfariān, Din va siāsat dar dawra-ye Ṣafavi, Tehran, 1991. Of the theologians who did in fact migrate to Persia, Shaikh Nur-al-Din ʿAli b. Ḥosayn Karaki (d. 1534) is recognized as the most famous and the most successful. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, shah of Iran (1941-79). During the tenth century there were two distinguished Jewish families in Baghdad, *Netira and Aaron. Amir Solṭān Mawṣellu managed to arrest Ḡiāṯ-al-Din in 1521 and had him executed the following day but he himself was dismissed from his post and recalled to Tabriz by Shah Esmāʿil, who appointed a new tutor (lala), ʿAli Beg Rumlu, known as Div Solṭān for Ṭahmāsp Mirzā, while the princedom of Herat and Khorasan was given to his brother, Sām Mirzā. A more appealing explanation for basing the central, royal administration in Qazvin lies with the aforementioned agenda of minimizing undue Turkic influence in the Safavid court. However, as noted earlier, a substantial study in Persian of this reign is: M. Pārsādust, Šāh Ṭahmāsb-e awwal, Tehran, 1998. After 1555, there were ripples of disturbance in Ottoman-Safavid relations, amongst which was Ṭahmāsp’s decision to provide temporary refuge to Solaymān’s rebel son, Bāyazid, in 1562, and the Ottoman assassination of the chief Safavid official in Syria, Maʿṣum Beg Ṣafavi, for proselytizing among the Turkmen populations in northern Syria. Reorientation and stability (1555-76). In 1548, Suleiman and Alqas entered Iran with a huge army but Tahmasp had already "scorched the earth" around Tabriz and the Ottomans could find few supplies to sustain themselves. After Homāyun had been invited to Persia in 1542, Shah Ṭahmāsp dispatched an edict (farmān) to the governor of Herat, Moḥammad Šaraf-al-Din Oḡli stating that “it is mandatory that the Ḥāfeẓ (memorizer of the Qurʾān) Ṣāber Burqāq, Mawlānā Qāsem Qānuni (“the qānun player”), Ostād Šāh Moḥammad Sornāʾi (“the flute player”), the Ḥāfeẓ Dust-Moḥammad Ḵᵛāfi, Ostād Yusof Mawdud, and other famous reciters and singers who may be in the city, be constantly present. As Andrew Newman has argued (see bibliography), the question of Arabic-speaking theologians migrating to Persia in the 16th century brings up an important problem of how Safavid Persia and its understanding of Shiʿism was viewed by the outside Twelver Shiʿite world, not to mention the majority Sunni community. As Eḥsān Ešrāqi (Echraqi) has demonstrated (1996, pp. Tahmasp himself was believed to favour Haydar but he prevented his supporters from killing Ismail. [21] These would become an important new element in Iranian society. In this regard, Sholeh Quinn gives Ê¿Abbās an easy ride, passing no value judgements on his treatment of his children (pp. 640-46; S. A. Arjomand, The Shadow of God and the Hidden Imam, Chicago, 1984, pp. 225-46; Devin Stewart “The First Shaykh al-Islām of the Safavid Capital Qazvin,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 116, 1996, pp. 4 (1949): 46-53. p. 46-53 The Cleveland Museum of Art. [26], Tahmasp died as a result of poison, although it is unclear whether this was by accident or on purpose. He was the son and successor of Ismail I. 232-51, and A. H. Morton, “The Ardabil Shrine in the Reign of Shah Tahmasp,” Iran 12, 1974, pp. tr. [17], Meanwhile, King Francis I of France, enemy of the Habsburgs, and Suleiman the Magnificent were moving forward with a Franco-Ottoman alliance, formalized in 1536, that would counterbalance the Habsburg threat. Ṭahmāsp’s “second repentance” in 1556, in which he had “decrees and orders” (aḥkām va parvānejāt) regarding new standards of public morality and piety issued by the chancellery and distributed to amirs and functionaries throughout the land, included the quatrain: “Ṭahmāsp the Just, ruler of the land of faith/Has pledged an oath for the repentance of [himself and] his subjects/The date of this imposed repentance is ‘Unrelapsing penitence’/It is God’s will, may no one transgress this” (al-Qommi, I, p. 386) In the same year, we hear of Mir Sayyed ʿAli – of Šuštari Marʿaši fame – and his nomination to the sadārat, and it is thus difficult not to see this appointment as an indication of his fraternization with these reinvigorated sayyed networks. by Paul Horn, Die Denkwurdigkeiten schah Tahmasp's des Ersten von Persien (Strassburg: K. J. Trubner, 1891). [13] Other legations were sent in 1532 and 1533. Div Solṭān proved to be both cunning and patient in his plan to subjugate the Ostājlu and Takkalu groups, and used this period of cooperation to placate tribal sensitivities and isolate Köpek Solṭān Ostājlu. ©2021 Encyclopædia Iranica Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. One of the most focused studies of a particular aspect of his empire is Martin Dickson’s dissertation, “Shah Tahmāsb and the Uzbeks: the Duel for Khurāsān with ʿUbayd Khān, 930-946/1524-1540,” Princeton University, 1958. See also S. C. Welch, Persian Painting: Five Royal Safavid Manuscripts of the Sixteenth Century, New York, 1976, and S. Canby, The Golden Age of Persian Art, 1501-1722, London, 1999. Tahmasp I (/ t ɑː ˈ m ɑː s p /; Persian pronunciation: [tæhˈmɒːseb], Persian: شاه تهماسب یکم ‎) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty.He was the son and successor of Ismail I.. U. Haarmann and P. Bachmann, Beirut, 1979, pp. A power struggle between him and Mohammad Mosaddegh led to the latter's ouster in … 351-70. As governor of the Safavid capital, Köpek Solṭān still retained a fair amount of control, and some of his tribal supporters petitioned him to challenge the shah’s lala openly. See also R. S. Johnson, “Sunni Survival in Safavid Iran: Anti-Sunni Activities during the Reign of Shah Tahmasp,” Iranian Studies 27, 1994, pp. See also Sām Mirzā, Taḏkera-ye toḥfa-e Sāmi, ed. He also captured one of Suleiman's favourites, Sinan Beg. (1524-1576) aus Dagestan,” in Muslim Culture in Russia and Central Asia, ed. He persuaded Suleiman that if he invaded the Iranians would rise up and overthrow Tahmasp. While Persians continued to fill their historical role as administrators and clerical elites under Ṭahmāsp, little had been done so far to minimize the military role of the Qezelbāš. During the 12th century, but beginning with the reign of Caliph al-MuktafÄ« (902–908), the situation of the Jews i… R. Homāyun-Farroḵ, Tehran, 1969. Moreover, Esmāʿil insisted that there should be a religious tutor to instruct the young prince in the principal rituals and ceremonies of Twelver Shiʿism, and the religious notable and prominent Persian urbanite of Herat, Amir Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Moḥammad b. Amir Yusof, was appointed to the ṣadārat-e šāhzāda (the prince’s tutorship and guardianship). Thus, in 1540, Shah Ṭahmāsp initiated the first of a series of systematic invasions of the Caucasus region, bringing back massive amounts of plundered property and prodigious numbers of Christian slaves. The two princes quarrelled and eventually Bayezid rebelled against his father. Unfettered by the juridical and exegetical arguments and proofs presented by Shiʿite scholars in the past, Karaki was free to embrace the oṣuli principle of ejtehād (‘interpretation’) in his defense of a secular kingdom acting as the spiritual custodian of the Imami community. Mumtaz Mahal was a niece of empress Nur Jahan and granddaughter of Mirza Ghias Beg I’timad-ud-Daula, wazir of emperor Jehangir. Tahmasp was the son of Shah Ismail I and Shah-Begi Khanum (known under the title Tajlu Khanum) of the Turcoman Mawsillu tribe. She was born in 1593 and died in 1631, during the birth of her fourteenth child at Burhanpur. 18-51; idem, “Venezia e la Persia tra Uzun Hasan e Tahmasp (1454-1572),” Veltro 14, 1970, pp. In 1528 Chuha Sultan and the shah marched with their army to reassert control of the region. He was forced to retreat to Baghdad where the Ottomans abandoned him as an embarrassment. Abbas the Great or Abbas I of Persia (Persian: شاه عباس بزرگ ‎; 27 January 1571 – 19 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered as one of the greatest rulers of Persian history and the Safavid dynasty.He was the third son of Shah Mohammad Khodabanda. The most recent addition to the discussion of the migration of scholars is R. Jaʿfariān, “The Immigrant Manuscripts: A Study of the Migration of Shiʿi Works from Arab Regions to Iran in the Early Safavid Iran,” in Society and Culture in the Early Modern Middle East: Studies on Iran in the Safavid Period, ed. Div Solṭān Rumlu proposed a triumvirate, a junta of sorts, whereby he would share the office of amir-al-omarā (commander-in-chief) with both Köpek Solṭān Ostājlu and Čuha Solṭān Takkalu. Fraternal revolts and family schisms in the Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal dynastic households dominated the course of political events in Persia after 1533. Iran - Iran - Shah Ê¿Abbās I: The á¹¢afavids were still faced with the problem of making their empire pay. [3][4] One of his most notable successors, the greatest Safavid emperor, Abbas I (also known as Abbas the Great) would fully implement and finalize this policy and the creation of this new layer in Iranian society. He and his men plundered Hamadān, Qom, and Kāšān, but failed to breach the defensive fortifications of Isfahan. On 9 July 1533 a royal decree was issued declaring that Karaki was not only the supreme religious authority in the Safavid court but that henceforth he was the “Deputy of the [Twelfth] Imam” (nāʾeb al-emām), an unsettling claim for many orthodox Shiʿite clerics both in and outside of Persia. The young Shah Ṭahmāsp I, the son of Ismāʿīl, retook Baghdad in 1529 and gave it to Muḥammad Sultan Khan TakkalÅ«. In 1574, Tahmasp also had the 36th Nizari Ismaili Shia Imam Murād MÄ«rzā executed, due to the perceived political threat he posed. M. Dabir-Siāqi, 4 vols., Tehran, 1983; Eng. R. Gyselen, Bures-sur-Yvette, 1996, pp. Shortly before his death in February 1588, he entrusted the collection and arrangement of his literary remains to the poet and literary biographer Taqi-al-Din Kāšāni. POSSIBLY USEFUL Generally because of ottoman country was an empire and also the ottomans sultans had great tolerent towards to non turkish people a lot of race lived under the rule of ottomans. see Sharaf Khan Bidlisi [Šaraf Ḵān Bedlisi], The Sharafnama, or, The History of the Kurdish Nation, tr. On account of the pleasure-exciting songs of the singers, Venus was concealed (in shame) in the sheet of the sky and on account of the music of the musicians, grieved hearts became gladdened; and on account of the palatable foods and pleasant drinks the unsettling hunger in the hearts of beggars vanished like the desire for food in the hearts of rich persons. On 5 July 1527 as Div Sultan arrived for a meeting of the government, Tahmasp shot an arrow at him. In turn, many of these transplanted women became wives and concubines of Ṭahmāsp, and the Safavid harem emerged as a competitive, and sometimes lethal, arena of ethnic politics as cliques of Turkmen, Circassian, and Georgian women and courtiers vied with each other for the shah’s attention. A number of studies have been offered on architecture and urban dynamics under Shah Ṭahmāsp. By the time of the fourth invasion in 1553, it was clear that Ṭahmāsp had a policy of annexation and resettlement in mind as he incorporated control of Tbilisi (Tiflis) and the region of Kartli while physically transplanting more than 30,000 people, mostly women and children, to the central Iranian plateau. They were both influential in the royal court and they showed concern for the welfare of the community. We are led to believe that the chief agents for this sudden rectitude in the shah’s piety and the spread of orthodoxy in the Safavid court and cities alike were a number of Twelver Shiʿite theologians who migrated from the Jabal ʿĀmel region of modern-day Lebanon (see JABAL ʿĀMEL and SHIʿITES IN LEBANON). Alqas had rebelled and, fearing his brother's wrath, he had fled to the Ottoman court. 12-18) attest to the shah’s longstanding recognition and sponsorship of Christian Armenian (see also ARMENIA AND IRAN vi, pp. 45-73; R. Islam, Indo-Persian Relations: A Study of the Political and Diplomatic Relations Between the Mughal Empire and Iran, Tehran, 1970, pp. Haydar was killed and Ismail emerged triumphant as Shah Ismail II.[27]. J. Homāʾi, 4 vols., Tehran, 1954; ed. K. Irānšahr, Berlin, 1924-25. Dissension appeared soon afterward among the Qezelbāš ranks, and the Ostājlu tribe, headed by Köpek Solṭān, chafed at the prospect of Rumlu hegemony at the Safavid court. On his death, as expected, fighting broke out between the different court factions. Realizing that his plan to place Sām Mirzā on the throne was no longer tenable, Solaymān withdrew his Ottoman forces from Mesopotamia (with the exception of Baghdad) in 1535. , Beirut, 1979, pp Die Denkwurdigkeiten schah Tahmasp 's court Širāzi, Takmelat al-aḵbār, ed exchanges effectively... “ Der safavidische Pavilion in Qazvin, ” ZDMG 110, 1960,.. Submitted tags will be reviewed by site administrator before it is posted you... Distinguished Jewish families in Baghdad, * Netira and Aaron is referred to shisha. She also built relationships with the Great Stupa and smaller cultic buildings ; and Rasul Jaʿfariān, Din siāsat... Brother Shahzada ‘Abdl Fath Muiz ud-din Bahram Mirza, and 50,000 troops finished him off tiam inventis la nargileon Hindio! To come to terms at the end of the tenth century R. Isaac b. Moses ibn SakrÄ « of was... 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