Jerome Kagan, while at Harvard, used the cognitive style of reflection/impulsivity to describe how individuals approach a problem-solving task. However, there is another classification of temperament by kids definition, also called the types of temperament. Melancholic(analytical, wise, and quiet) 4. Insecure resistant Jerome Kagan: Born: 1929 - Newark, New Jersey: Current: Professor of psychology, Harvard University: Education: Ph.D. Yale University: Achievements: Pioneered research on the influence of temperament on children's behavior; Recipient of distinguished scientist awards from the American Psychological Association and the Society for Research in Child Development b. Quickly and professionally. Easy child When she meets an unsmiling stranger at her home b. d. Suckling. The Strange Situation is an observational measure of infant attachment developed by Mary Ainsworth. b. Which of the following statements is NOT true of crying? Easy Jerome Kagan's classification of temperament focuses on: A) inhibition to the unfamiliar. c. Security of attachment to a primary caregiver a) ... A client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tells the nurse, "Sometimes I feel so frustrated. b. Sheh is displaying one of a baby’s earliest emotions, ____________. a. Inhibition to the unfamiliar. b. However, he is happy upon reunion, and then, continues to explore once the caregiver has returned. Curiosity Feelings or effects that occur when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his/her well-being are known as: a. Temperament c. Attachment Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body? Sakura isn’t a particularly active child, and he tends to be wary of new situations and people. c. Contact comfort is the crucial element in the attachment process c. Slow-to-warm-up child Experts on infant socioemotional development, such as Jerome Kagan, conclude that ___________ makes it unlikely that emotions which require thought can be experienced in the first year. That is perceived to a non-stranger He noted that the temperament was fairly stable but could change significantly, later on, depending on how the child interacted with their environment. b. The child’s genetic aspect of temperament It requires the infant to: a. a. Slow-to-warm-up d. Reciprocal socialization. Temperament suggests some Babies are more anxious and others are more sociable and it may affect the quality of an individuals attachment. Secure attachment a. Sanguine(enthusiastic, active, and social) 2. b. Extremely inhibited d. Fathers are less affectionate with their children, b. Fathers are more physical with their children. a. c. It is nontransactional c. That provides oral satisfaction Temperament influences how teachers, peers, and family relate to her, as well as how she relates to them. ... invited address by Jerome Kagan to the Midwestern Psychological As- sociation on May 4, 1990, in Chicago. 46. d. Social referencing. a. Cognition a. Researchers call this type of smiling: a. b. Mariposa is in the Strange Situation; she moves freely away from her mother but keeps track of where she is through periodic glances. Read more about this topic through the lesson titled Jerome Kagan's Research on Temperament in Toddlers. c. Jealousy c. Insecure resistant b. Extraversion/surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control b. Temperament Stability and Change Temperament remains … She does this repeatedly, letting the baby keep the rattle for several seconds each time and encouraging the baby to offer the rattle. When assessing a client with partial-thickness burns over 60% of the body, which finding should the nurse report immediately? Jerome Kagan's classification of temperament focuses on: 42. d. Oral satisfaction and physical comfort. One of the conclusions from this analysis was that the only individual characteristic to remain stable across the developmental period under study was shy, timid behavior as opposed to outgoing, so… Jerome Kagans classification of temperament focuses on A inhibition to the, 1 out of 1 people found this document helpful. c. Perception Quimby relaxes when she sees her mother smiling and speaking to the stranger in a calm voice. c. Biological evolution has endowed human beings to be emotional Deferred imitation Dependence c. Sensation v) Explain how temperament is related to adjustment later in life. Is the result of inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some degree by the environment d. Social. This preview shows page 5 - 7 out of 40 pages. Embarrassment Use this lesson to get a better understanding of these objectives: a. a. c. Less stranger anxiety The development of ________ helps infants interpret ambiguous situations more accurately, as when they encounter a stranger. d.. c. Autonomy He would be classified as __________. c. Slow-to-warm-up child a. Slow-to-warm-up Which of the following statements about emotions is FALSE? That's a key question that psychologist Jerome Kagan addressed in his studies on temperament. Move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with his/her mother and a stranger c. Social referencing According to Erikson, ______________ are keys to establishing a basic trust in infants. Flexible. c. Sensation ______________ involves individual differences in behavioral styles, emotions, and characteristic ways of responding. set of genetically determined psychic qualities a person possesses Pick up the baby and soothe him/her so that a healthy sense of trust develops b. d. Patience and tolerance. c. Goodness of fit a. Attachment b. b. Fathers are more physical with their children The structural immaturity of the infant brain Jerome Kagan's way of classifying temperament that focuses on the differences between a shy, timid child and a sociable, extraverted child. According to Jerome Kagan, temperament: is the result of inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some. c. Emotionality First, Kagan and Moss (1962) conducted an ex post analysis of data from the Fels Longitudinal Study which comprised about 100 normal subjects followed from early childhood to adulthood. What is the significant finding of Harlow’s experiments on monkeys reared by surrogate mothers? c. Effortful control c. Help the infant develop a secure attachment to the caregiver When a child’s natural behavior doesn’t fit with what is expected, social, family, or academic problems may arise. b. Neglectfulness and indifference c. Social referencing Lack of innate emotions in the infant brain a. Cause the infant to become insecurely attached to the caregiver Temperament shapes children’s outcomes and influences the way they interact with their environment and how adults and children respond to them. Infants show ___________ when they are in familiar settings. Some researchers point to association of temperament with formal dynamical features of behavior, such as energetic aspects, plasticity, sensitivity to specific reinforcers and emotionality. b. d. Insecure disorganized. d. (Hyper) activity level. Identifying the temperament qualities that affect the development of personality in infancy and early childhood is also a significant question. Three-month-old Zoey looks up at her mother and smiles. a. a. Private Fear Insecure disorganized According to psychiatrists Alexander Chess and Stella Thomas, a(n) ____________ child reacts negatively and cries frequently, engages in irregular daily routines, and slow to accept change. a. Overprotectiveness and criticism c. Natural According to Thomas and Chess, they include easy, difficult, and slow to warm-up. Temperament Jerome Kagan’s classification of temperament focuses on: a. Inhibition to the unfamiliar Tiesha hears the crying of her irritable child. Which of the following statements about later functioning for these children is TRUE? d. Embeddedness in relationships prevents diversity in emotional experiences, d. Embeddedness in relationships prevents diversity in emotional experiences. d. Insecure avoidant. Jeremy is a securely attached infant; Jason is classified as an insecure infant. c. Crying when the caregiver leaves Temperament and personality are clearly related, but not the same thing, based on both conceptual and empirical grounds. b. It is the most important mechanism newborns have for communicating with their world Jerome Kagan's way of classifying temperament that focuses on the differences between a shy, timid child and a sociable, extraverted child. c. When she meets a passive stranger in an unfamiliar place It turns out that it isn't about introverts and extraverts, nor does it… Work with our consultant to learn what to alter. It is asynchronous temperament renders some outcomes very likely, some . Watch this video for more information on Kagan's research on temperament in toddlers. d. Soothe the baby about every other time, so that he/she does not become dependent on external comforters, b. 3. Which of the following is an important role played by emotions during infancy? Physical comfort and sensitive care In their longitudinal investigation, Chess and Thomas found that ________ percent of the children they studied could be classified as easy. Inhibited refers to a shy, timid, and fearful profile of a child, whereas uninhibited refers to the appearance of bold, sociable and outgoing behaviours. This is an example of a ____________ smile. According the Freud, infants become attached to the person or object: a. Thus it may be out of the control of the environment. Ronald Wilson and Adam Matheny describe their work on temperament in the unique longitudinal Louisville Twin Study. d. Diversity of social contexts in which the child participates, a. a. b. Kagan worked briefly as a psychology instructor at Ohio State University, in 1954, before being recruited to work in the US Army Hospital during the Korean War, between 1955 and 1957. What types of behaviors in caregivers create a sense of shame and doubt in children? c. Mothers express more emotions with their children Jerome Kagan’s classification of temperament focuses on: a. Inhibition to the unfamiliar b. c. Securely attached Social smiling An inhibited temperament has been associated with all of the following EXCEPT: 47. What is the term used to describe "reading" emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation? According to many developmental psychologists, soothing a crying infant should: a. In the United States, parents tend to prefer children with an _____ temperament, whereas in China, an, 48. Your child’s temperament directly affects how she approaches her school work and chores at home. According to Mary Rothbart (2004), unlike early theoretical models of temperament, the more recent. d. Inhibited child. This is an example of: a. Sociability Emotions c. Difficult Quimby, age 15, looks to her mother to see if she should be afraid of the stranger who has come to her home. b. vi) Define the differential susceptibility hypothesis and goodness-of-fit. d. Behavioral organization. a. Different systems of temperament and regulation develop and are activated over time: Emotional and Motor Reactivity Behavioral Inhibition (reactive/emotional) Effortful Control (self- regulative) 15. Contact comfort is not the crucial element in the attachment process Independence b. d. Reciprocal socialization. B. is the result of inherited physiological characteristics and cannot be modified by the environment. b. Difficult child Phlegmatic(relaxed and peaceful) This classification comes from Hippocrates who believed the concept of humorismand incorporated those four temperaments into four bodily fluids(“humors”) affecting human behaviors and personality traits. Next, he was hired as a researcher in developmental psycholo… d. Feeling states. Social referencing b. Scaffolding Pick up the baby and soothe him/her so that a healthy sense of trust develops. Easy child Ask babies who they are, and they’ll babble something that seems nonsensical. b. Jeremy is a securely attached infant; Jason is classified as an insecure infant. Positive or negative mood state c. Effortful control d. (Hyper) activity level. Jerome Kagan is a Daniel and Amy Starch Professor of Psychology at Harvard University. 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