Commonwealth Government Contrary to what you may have heard, flying-foxes are very clean animals that are constantly grooming and cleaning themselves. There are only four species of flying-fox in Australia, (three of which are often seen flying and roosting in the Hunter & Central Coast Region). Despite concerns from farmers, they only eat fruit crops when native food sources are scarce. These animals may also raid orchards on occasion. Spectacled Flying-foxes are typically found north of Ingham in Queensland. Camps are often found in patches of rainforest and swamps as well as mangroves. Many rainforest trees have evolved to produce pale-coloured fruit on their outer branches, thereby making them more visible to the Flying Foxes at night. As a native species, they are protected via each State or territories environmental legislation. The plant produces yellow berries that fruit bats will eat in a pinch, but the problem is that tobacco grows low to the ground. Commonwealth Government , The large flying fox is a natural reservoir of the Nipah virus. Urban encroachment, land clearing, agriculture and drought have led to flying-foxes seeking alternative habitat such as patches of bushland in urban areas in which to roost and forage. Female large flying fox gestations are at their highest between November to January in Peninsular Malaysia, but some births occur in other months. They are vegetarians that forage on the fruit of over 50 native rainforest trees and vines. State Listing Status They roost in trees during the day and establish permanent and semi-permanent camps near food sources and for birthing. With durian tree flowers, the flying fox can lick up the nectar without doing apparent damage to the flower. Spectacled Flying-foxes are vulnerable to loss of feeding areas from forestry operations, clearing of native vegetation and land degradation from agriculture. They can get pretty noisy when they are disturbed, but during the day, flying-foxes are generally quiet as they are nocturnal animals. Species in NSW are protected under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974. Northern Territory Government Flying foxes also spread tree seed, helping to landscape vast areas of Australia. Both Black Flying-foxes and Little-Red Flying-foxes are both found in Ingham – the only town in Australia you can do this. Their contribution to the health of our native forests cannot be overstated.  The mantle can vary from pale dirty-buff to orange-yellow, while the chest is usually dark-golden brown or dark russet. They eat blossoms, nectar and fruit.  Flying foxes roost in the thousands (maximum). There are eight known species of ﬂying-fox in Australia, of which only four are relatively widespread on the Australian mainland. They have the largest body size of all bats, weighing up to one kilogram, with a wing span which may exceed one metre. Little Red Flying-foxes are not currently threat-listed by the Commonwealth Government, or any State Government. NOTE: Flying-foxes feed on >100 species of native plants; approximately evenly divided between nectar/pollen of flowering trees (eucalyptus, melaluecas, banksias) and fruits of rainforest trees and vines. Vocalizations are not made during flight. This species primarily feeds on flowers, nectar and fruit. Wild spectacled flying foxes eat a wide variety of Australian native rainforest fruits and flowers. Additionally, it is experiencing habitat loss through deforestation. They are FIFO workers on the night shift – flying out from their camps at dusk to feed on flowering or fruiting plants and trees. It is noted for being one of the largest bats.  It weighs 0.65–1.1 kg (1.4–2.4 lb) and has a wingspan of up to 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in). Each flying-fox can spread up to 60,000 seeds across a 50 kilometre stretch of land in one night. Most of their diet is made up of fruit, seeds, flowers, nectar, leaves, and more. conspicillatus) and the Christmas Island Flying-fox (Pteropus melanotus natalis) are listed under national environmental law (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, the EPBC Act). Territorial behavior includes growling and the spreading of wings. The dental formula is 22.214.171.124.1.3.3. The environment minister, Melissa Price, said the spectacled flying fox would be listed nationally as endangered, up from vulnerable, to “reflect heightened concerns for its future”. Flying-foxes are the largest flying mammal in Australia. Habitat: Spectacled Flying-foxes roost high on the branches of trees.  al. Grey-headed Flying-foxes are found from Ingham (110km north of Townsville in Queensland), through New South Wales and south to Victoria (and are now even found in South Australia). 2018) which represents a decline of over 75% from November 2004. The spectacled flying fox bat is famed for its light fur ringing its eyes, and has a very limited range in northern Queensland and neighboring islands. They supplement this diet by eating fruit from introduced plants found in gardens, orchards, parks and streetscaping. Like nearly all Old World fruit bats, flying foxes use sight rather than echolocation to navigate. Many forest-dwelling threatened species depend on these 'batty' forests to provide them with food… The four flying-fox species found in Australia (Grey-headed Flying Fox, Black Flying-fox, Little Red Flying-fox and the Spectacled Flying-fox) are all protected under various state environmental legislation as native animals. NGO: Listed as Near Threatened (CD) (The action plan for Australian mammals 2012).  In Thailand, gestation may take place during the same period with young being born in March or early April. So now, more than ever, we need to find ways to co-exist with this incredibly important native species. Flying foxes will also eat mangoes and bananas. Most, but not all, are nocturnal. An extreme heatwave in far north Queensland last month is estimated to have killed more than 23,000 spectacled flying foxes, equating to almost one third of the species in Australia. Around dusk, grey-headed flying foxes leave the roost and travel up to 50 km a night to feed on pollen, nectar and fruit. Spectacled Flying-foxes appear to favour nectar and pollen of eucalypt blossoms.  In Malaysia, flying foxes prefer lowland habitats below 365 m. In Borneo, they inhabit the coastal areas, but move to nearby islands to feed on fruit. However, in maintaining the bats in quarantine for one year, researchers found that the bat was negative for antibodies against Nipah virus for the first eleven months, but was then seropositive once more. This suggested that the Nipah virus can recrudesce in the large flying fox, or maintain itself after periods of remission. 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